Concordant Oral and Vaginal Human Papillomavirus Infection in the United States

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Abstract

IMPORTANCE

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common infection in adults, with tropism for sites in the head and neck and the genital tracts. To date, few studies have addressed concurrent infection in these sites.

OBJECTIVE

To understand the prevalence, characteristics, and concordance of HPV infections in the oral and vaginal regions.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS

This study was a retrospective analysis of cross-sectional survey data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009-2012. The database was reviewed for all women aged 18 to 69 years with available oral and vaginal HPV DNA screening data. The study was performed from August 1, 2014, to November 1, 2014. Data analysis was performed from November 1, 2014, to June 30, 2015.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES

Logistic regression models were constructed to identify factors associated with infection. Covariates for multivariate analysis included age, income to poverty ratio, number of prior sexual partners, number of prior oral sex partners, and having recent oral sex partners. Dual infection was defined as having an infection of any serotype in both the oral and vaginal HPV regions. Concordant infection was defined as an infection of matching serotype in both locations.

RESULTS

A total of 3463 women were identified (mean [SD] age, 37.5 [12.1] years). Racial distribution was 1341 white (38.7%), 786 black (22.7%), 554 Mexican American (16.0%), 378 other Hispanic (10.9%), and 404 self-identified as other (11.7%). Vaginal HPV infection was present in 1586 (45.2%) and oral HPV infection in 141 (4.1%). Dual infection was identified in 107 (3.0%) of all patients, and concordant infection was observed in 41 (1.1%). The prevalence of dual infection was 75.9% in those with oral infection and 6.8% in those with vaginal infection. On multivariate analysis, age (30-50 years) and higher income to poverty ratios had negative associations with dual and concordant infections. A new sexual partner within the last year was positively associated with dual infection (odds ratio, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.03-5.02; P = .04). More than 2 oral sex partners in the past year was positively associated with concordant infection (odds ratio, 3.43; 95% CI, 1.06-11.06; P = .04).

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE

This analysis reveals the importance of several demographic factors (age and socioeconomic status) and behavioral factors (oral sex practices) in the development of dual and concordant HPV infection in women. Notably, other sexual behaviors, other sexually transmitted infections, sexual orientation, and number of lifetime sexual partners did not demonstrate any significant associations. Women with multiple oral sex partners and oral HPV infection have a high likelihood of having concurrent vaginal HPV infection.

This cross-sectional study evaluates factors associated with concurrent oral and vaginal human papillomavirus infections in the United States.

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