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No evidence exists to direct the management of preoperative aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) use in patients undergoing thyroid surgery. Nevertheless, a considerable number of patients interrupt receiving aspirin therapy during the preoperative period to minimize bleeding complications despite the increased risk of experiencing major adverse cardiac events.To determine whether aspirin therapy continued preoperatively increases bleeding complications in patients undergoing thyroid surgery.Retrospective analysis of a consecutive sample of 570 patients, aged 18 to 100 years, who underwent thyroid surgery for benign and malignant disease from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2015, by a single surgeon at a tertiary referral hospital center in New Orleans, Louisiana.Patients receiving aspirin therapy and patients not receiving aspirin therapy (aspirin naive) preoperatively.Comparison of estimated blood loss, substantial blood loss, operative hematoma, nonoperative hematoma, and recurrent laryngeal nerve injury.Of 570 patients who underwent thyroid surgery, 106 (18.6%) were performed in patients receiving aspirin; of these, 23 (21.7%) were men and 105 (99.1%) were older than 45 years. Those receiving aspirin therapy displayed a 14.4-year difference in age (95% CI, 11.6-17.1). The aspirin group displayed a 20.3% absolute increase (95% CI, 9.3-30.7) in African American patients. Aspirin therapy was not associated with a statistically significant or clinically meaningful increase in intraoperative blood loss (2.5 mL; 95% CI, –0.4 to 5.3). Aspirin therapy was associated with a statistically significant increase in total hematoma formation (3.3%; 95% CI, 0.4-9.0), but the results were inconclusive. Aspirin therapy was not associated with a statistically significant increase in recurrent laryngeal nerve injury (2.6%; 95% CI, –1.1 to 8.6), but the results were inconclusive.These results suggest that aspirin therapy can be maintained prior to thyroid surgery without increased intraoperative bleeding. Further research with a larger sample size and more outcome events are required to make definitive conclusions regarding the association between aspirin use and complications, including hematoma and recurrent laryngeal nerve injury.