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To investigate the factors affecting the research productivity of young nursing faculty in Japan.An online survey targeting young nursing scholars (aged ≤39 years) who were members of the Japan Academy of Nursing Science was conducted from October to November 2012. Of 1634 potential respondents, 648 completed the survey (39.7%), and 400 full-time faculty of a baccalaureate degree program were selected for the analysis. The numbers of English-language and Japanese publications in the past 3 years were regressed onto personal characteristics, such as academic degree and type of university.The mean numbers of publications in English and Japanese in the past 3 years were 0.41 and 1.63, respectively. Holding a doctoral degree was significantly related to a higher number of publications in English and Japanese (eβ = 5.78 and eβ = 1.89, respectively). Working at a national university (eβ = 2.15), having a research assistant (eβ = 2.05), and the ability to read research articles in English (eβ = 2.27) were significantly related to more English-language publications. Having the confidence to conduct quantitative research (eβ = 1.67) was related to a larger number of Japanese publications. The lack of mentoring (eβ = 0.97) and university workload (eβ = 0.96) were associated with a lesser number of Japanese publications.The research productivity of young nursing faculty appeared to be quite low. Strategies to enhance research productivity in young nursing faculty, such as encouraging the achievement of a doctoral degree or enrichment of research resources, should be undertaken.