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The goals of this study were to develop a partnership causal model and verify the model's fitness for couples undergoing fertility treatment.A purposive sample of 1004 consenting participants (502 couples) undergoing fertility treatment was selected from five fertility clinics across Japan. A mailed self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. The partnership causal model was examined with structural equation modeling.A total of 565 questionnaires were returned (56.3%) and the number of valid responses was 466 (46.4%). The factor “medical professionals' support (nurses and physicians)” influenced the couples' “partnership” (β = 0.16) and had a direct effect on the men's quality of life (QOL) and an indirect effect on the women's QOL (β = 0.20). Couples' partnership had a significant impact on couples' QOL (β = 0.20) and on “satisfaction in their relationship with their partner” (β = 0.48). The multi-population path analysis revealed that married couples influenced each other's perceptions of their partnership (men, β = 0.84; women, β = 0.88). Additionally, the spouse's partnership influenced both individual's QOL (men, β = 0.77; women, β = 0.77) and the satisfaction with the relationship (men, β = 0.46; women, β = 0.59). The participants' “distress” significantly and negatively affected the participants' QOL.The results revealed that for a couple undergoing fertility treatments, a strong partnership maintains their QOL, and this could decrease the couples' distress (particularly in women). Partnership was also related to the variability of “medical professionals' support”.