Effectiveness of a home hazard modification program for reducing falls in urban community-dwelling older adults: A randomized controlled trial

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Aim:To evaluate the potential improvement of fall prevention awareness and home modification behaviors and to decrease indoor falls by applying a home hazard modification program (HHMP) in community-dwelling older adults followed up to 1 year in this randomized controlled trial.Methods:The present authors randomly assigned 130 older adults living in the Tokyo metropolitan region to either the HHMP intervention group (n = 67) or the control group (n = 63). Both groups received four, 2 h fall prevention multifactorial programs including education regarding fall risk factors, food and nutrition, foot self-care, and exercise sessions. However, only the HHMP group received education and practice regarding home safety by using a model mock-up of a typical Japanese home.Results:The mean age of the HHMP group was 75.7 years and the control group 75.8. The HHMP group showed a 10.9% reduction in overall falls, and falls indoors showed an 11.7% reduction at 52 weeks. Those aged 75 years and over showed a significant reduction in both overall falls and indoor falls at 12 weeks. Fall prevention awareness and home modifications were significantly improved in the HHMP group.Conclusion:HHMP has the potential to improve fall prevention awareness and home modification behaviors, and specifically decreased overall and indoor falls in 12 weeks in those aged 75 years and older in community-dwelling older adults.

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