Dietary lutein and fish oil interact to alter atherosclerotic lesions in a Japanese quail model of atherosclerosis

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Abstract

Interactions between concentration of dietary lutein and fish oil in diets on atherosclerosis incidences were studied in a cholesterol-induced-atherosclerosis (CIA) model. CIA Japanese quail were fed a basal diet with three amounts of lutein (0, 25 and 50 mg/kg diet) and two amounts of fish oil (3% and 6%) in a 3 × 2 factorial in five replications. Samples were collected at 24 and 27 weeks of age. Atherosclerosis lesions in the dorsal aorta were measured by histochemistry sectioning. At 27 weeks of age, increasing dietary fish oil content to 6% decreased (p < 0.01) the atherosclerotic lesions only in the 0 mg lutein supplemented groups. At 27 weeks of age, increasing dietary fish oil content to 6% increased the atherosclerotic lesion score when lutein was supplemented at either 25 or 50 mg/kg feed. Aorta and liver lutein content increased (p < 0.01) with increasing dietary lutein content at 27 weeks of age. Increasing dietary fish oil content to 6% increased (p < 0.01) the aorta fat content by twofold and decreased (p < 0.01) the liver fat by 26% at 27 weeks of age. Increasing the dietary fish oil content to 6% increased (p = 0.01) the total PUFA and decreased (p = 0.03) the total mono unsaturated fatty acids content of the aorta at 27 weeks of age. At 27 weeks of age, increasing dietary fish oil content to 6% decreased the amount of TBARS (p = 0.01) and IL-1 mRNA (p < 0.01) only in the 0 mg lutein supplemented groups. Increasing dietary fish oil content to 6% increased the amount of TBARS and IL-1 mRNA of the aorta when lutein was supplemented at either 25 or 50 mg/kg diet. Dietary lutein supplementation decreased atherosclerosis lesions only at low levels of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids.

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