To investigate the ecological effect of macroalgae on de-eutrophication and depuration of mariculture seawater, the variation of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and phosphate (DIP), the amount of Vibrio anguillarum, and total heterotrophic bacteria in Ulva clathrata culture, as well as on the algal surface, were investigated by artificially adding nutrients and V. anguillarum strain 65 from February to April 2006. The results indicated that U. clathrata not only had strong DIN and DIP removal capacities, but also showed a significant inhibitory effect on V. anguillarum, although not reducing the total heterotrophic bacteria. Vibrio anguillarum 65 dropped from 5˜8 × 107 cfu mL-1 to 10 cfu mL-1 (clone-forming units per mL) in 10 g L-1 of fresh U. clathrata culture within 2 days; i.e., almost all of the Vibrios were efficiently eradicated from the algal culture system. Our results also showed that the inhibitory effect of U. clathrata on V. anguillarum strain 65 was both DIN- and DIP-dependent. Addition of DIN and DIP could enhance the inhibitory effects of the algae on the Vibrio, but did not reduce the total heterotrophic bacteria. Further studies showed that the culture suspension in which U. clathrata was pre-cultured for 24 h also had an inhibitory effect on V. anguillarum strain 65. Some unknown chemical substances, either released from U. clathrata or produced by the alga associated microorganisms, inhibited the proliferation of V. anguillarum 65.