Rater bias in performance ratings: Superior, self−, and peer ratings

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Leniency errors, halo effects, and differential dimensionality were explored in an analysis of superior, self-, and peer performance ratings of 107 managerial and 76 professional employees in a medium-sized manufacturing location, representing 95% of the managerial and professional staff. Self-ratings showed greater leniency effects than superior or peer ratings. A multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) analysis supported the presence of strong halo effect and significant convergent validity but not discriminant validity. The dimensional analysis supported the presence of strong halo effect. A statistical control procedure for the halo effect was developed that involved calculating residuals of the performance items, controlling for the “overall effectiveness” variance component in each item. The procedure did not reduce the significant halo effect, nor did it improve the nonsignificant discriminant validity in the MTMM analysis. It did, however, clarify the dimensional structure of ratings by superiors. Data from 4 previously published studies were also reanalyzed using the statistical control procedure. (19 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

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