Scrutinizing the Skipper: A study of leadership behaviors in the dugout

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The Coaching Behavior Assessment System was used by trained observers to classify the behaviors of coaches toward their players into 12 categories. Samples of 51 and 31 coaches in a boys' baseball program were observed during the 1976 and 1977 seasons, respectively. 867 players were interviewed at the end of the 2 seasons concerning perceptions of their coach's behaviors and attitudes toward their experience. Significant relationships were found at the team level among coaching behaviors as recorded by observers and perceived by players. The degree of punitiveness was an important factor in these relationships. Behavioral data provided by observers and players also related significantly to the won-lost record and team attitudes toward both the coach and team. Perceptions of their own behavior by coaches were unrelated to the data provided by observers and players. (20 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved)

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