A model of learning transfer that focused on the active role of the learner was developed and tested within a complex decision-making task. The study examined how individual differences, learning strategies, and training outcomes influenced transfer of learning to a more complex task. A sample of 93 undergraduate students participated in a 2-day radar operations study. Hierarchical regression analysis results indicated that mastery orientation was positively related to metacognitive activity of the learner. Metacognitive activity was significantly related to knowledge acquisition, skilled performance at the end of training, and self-efficacy. All 3 of these training outcomes were related to performance on the transfer task. Implications of these findings for research and practice are discussed.