The usefulness of traditional methods of HIV plasma titration has been limited by poor detection capacity in the asymptomatic phase of HIV disease. We analyzed plasma samples from asymptomatic seropositive or early symptomatic patients, comparing the classic plasma culture method with the following techniques: phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate treatment of target cells, centrifugal inoculation of the virus, heat treatment of cultures, addition of monocyte/macrophages to cultures, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) treatment of the plasma. Only PEG treatment significantly increased the percentage of HIV isolation. The increase of HIV isolation after PEG treatment is more evident in patients with higher CD4+ cell counts and those without detectable levels of p24 antigen. In the p24-negative samples, HIV was isolated in 17 of 24 (71%) with PEG treatment versus nine of 24 (37%) with the classic method (p < 0.01). A number of discordant samples were found using the classic and PEG methods. Combining the positive results obtained with either technique, we obtained an overall HIV detection rate of 76%. The increased sensitivity of the combination of PEG and classic methods may allow a wider use of plasma viremia as part of the virological evaluation of anti-HIV drug efficacy in asymptomatic patients.