The Presence of Cytokines and Growth Factors in Hydrosalpingeal Fluid1

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To examine the presence of cytokines and growth factors in hydrosalpingeal fluid.


Eighteen hydrosalpingeal fluids were compared with 15 follicular fluids and serum samples regarding the presence of interleukin-8 (IL-8), IL-12, IL-1α, epidermal growth factor (EGF), granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), interferon-γ (IFNγ), and transforming growth factor-β2 (TGFβ2).


IL-8 and EGF were detected in all the hydrosalpinx samples. IL-8, IL-12, IL-1α, TNFα, TGFβ 2, GM-CSF, and LIF were detected to a significantly larger extent in hydrosalpingeal than follicular fluids (p < 0.01). The same cytokines, with the exception of IL-8, TGFβ2, and LIF, were also more frequently present in comparison with serum.


The abundant presence of cytokines in hydrosalpingeal fluid suggests an increased expression from the tubal epithelium. Whether high concentrations have a negative influence on embryo development and implantation needs further investigation.

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