Age-Specific Reference Intervals for Indexed Left Ventricular Mass in Children

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In older children, one of the standards for indexing left ventricular mass (LVM) is height raised to an exponential power of 2.7. The purpose of this study was to establish a normal value for the pediatric age group and to determine how, if at all, LVM/height2.7 varies in children.


M-mode echocardiography was performed in 2,273 nonobese, healthy children (1,267 boys, 1,006 girls; age range 0-18 years). Curves were constructed for the 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th quantiles of LVM/height2.7.


In children aged > 9 years, median LVM/height2.7 ranged from 27 to 32 g/m2.7 and had little variation with age. However, in those aged < 9 years, LVM/height2.7 varied significantly, and percentiles for newborns and infants were approximately double the levels for older children and adolescents: the 95th percentile ranged from 80 g/m2.7 for newborns to 40 g/m2.7 for 11-year-olds.


For patients aged > 9 years, quantiles of LVM/height2.7 vary little, and values > 40 g/m2.7 in girls and > 45 g/m2.7 in boys can be considered abnormal (ie, > 95th percentile). However, for patients aged < 9 years, the index varies with age, and therefore, measured LVM/height2.7 must be compared with percentile curves, which are provided. This variation in LVM/height2.7 in younger children indicates that a better indexing method is needed for this age group. Nevertheless, these data are valuable in that they provide normal values with which patient data can be compared.

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