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Net atrioventricular compliance (Cn), a parameter for the net compliance of the left atrium and left ventricle, is known to be a useful predictor of outcomes in patients with mitral stenosis (MS). The present study aimed to evaluate whether the impact of Cn on symptom status and clinical outcomes, as well as its contribution toward systolic pulmonary artery pressure (SPAP), differed according to cardiac rhythm.We retrospectively reviewed patients (N = 308) with rheumatic pure MS. Doppler-derived Cn was calculated using planimetered mitral valve area and E-wave downslope of transmitral flow. The primary endpoint was defined as a composite of all-cause death, percutaneous mitral valvotomy, surgical mitral valve replacement, admission for heart failure, and stroke.Overall, there were 178 patients (58%) with sinus rhythm (SR) and 130 patients (42%) with atrial fibrillation (AF). In multivariable linear regression analysis, there was a significant independent association between Cn and SPAP in patients with SR (P = .014), but not in those with AF (P = .112). During a median follow-up of 38 months, 130 patients (27%) experienced the study endpoint. In multivariable Cox regression, high Cn was associated with a more favorable prognosis in patients with SR (hazard ratio = 0.83; 95% CI, 0.69-0.99; P = .038). Conversely, high Cn was not found to offset the burden of adverse clinical outcomes in those with AF (hazard ratio = 1.18; 95% CI, 0.99-1.40; P = .071).Cn appears to be associated with SPAP and clinical outcomes in MS patients with SR. The predictive role of Cn in patients with AF requires further clarification.High net atrioventricular compliance was associated with a more favorable prognosis in mitral stenosis patients with sinus rhythm.High net atrioventricular compliance was not found to offset the burden of adverse clinical outcomes in those with atrial fibrillation.The clinical application of net atrioventricular compliance as a predictor should be limited to patients with mitral stenosis maintaining sinus rhythm.