Role of Echocardiography in Transcatheter Mitral Valve Replacement in Native Mitral Valves and Mitral Rings

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Adaptation and evolution of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) technologies has led to approval of TAVR for consideration in patients at intermediate risk for surgical aortic valve intervention. As TAVR becomes more mainstream, attention is shifting toward percutaneous mitral valve (MV) repair and transcatheter MV replacement (TMVR) techniques. Transcatheter heart valves (both purpose-built and off-label-use TAVR valves) are being implanted during TMVR procedures to treat clinically significant MV disease (native disease, degenerated bioprosthetic valves, and dysfunctional surgical MV annuloplasty repairs) when the risk of open heart MV surgery is prohibitive. The success of these high-risk procedures is directly related to accurate periprocedural imaging with echocardiography and other modalities. Although a multidisciplinary heart valve team approach is necessary for optimal patient selection, a multimodality team-based imaging approach and comprehensive understanding of the MV are required for safe procedural planning. Collaboration between noninvasive cardiac imagers and the intraprocedural interventional imaging team and translation of the periprocedural imaging to the implanting team are crucial to the success of TMVR technology. Currently, the TMVR procedures discussed here are conducted either as part of clinical research or off label. The US Food and Drug Administration–approved mitral valve-in-valve procedures for the treatment of degenerated mitral bioprosthetic valves are not discussed here.HighlightsEchocardiography along with other imaging modalities is essential to assess suitability for TMVR.Image guidance with 2D and 3D echocardiography is key to the success of transcatheter MV replacements.The advent of novel TMVR devices will result in high demand for interventional echocardiographers.

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