Feasibility, Accuracy, and Reproducibility of Aortic Annular and Root Sizing for Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Using Novel Automated Three-Dimensional Echocardiographic Software: Comparison with Multi–Detector Row Computed Tomography

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Abstract

Background:

In transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), multi–detector row computed tomography (MDCT) is currently the standard imaging modality for correct prosthesis sizing, despite risks of radiation and contrast-induced renal injury. Three-dimensional (3D) transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has been proposed as a potential alternative imaging technique, and recently, automated 3D transesophageal echocardiographic software (Aortic Valve Navigator [AVN], an unreleased prototype from Philips) has been developed for assessment of the aortic annulus and root. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility, accuracy, and reproducibility of AVN measurements in TAVR candidates by performing a comparison with MDCT.

Methods:

In 150 patients with severe, symptomatic aortic stenosis referred for TAVR, data on aortic annular and root dimensions prospectively acquired using 3D TEE and MDCT were retrospectively analyzed. Image quality on 3D TEE and the duration of analysis with AVN were recorded, as well as the aortic valve Agatston score on MDCT.

Results:

Data were obtained using 3D TEE and MDCT in 100% of patients for aortic annular dimensions and in 89% for aortic root dimensions. The mean duration of analysis using AVN was 4.2 ± 1.0 min, but it was significantly shorter with better 3D echocardiographic image quality and lower Agatston score on MDCT. Correlation of measurements between 3D TEE and MDCT was good to excellent for all anatomic locations (sinotubular junction mean diameter, R = 0.71; sinus of Valsalva mean diameter, R = 0.87; aortic annular mean diameter, R = 0.75; aortic annular perimeter, R = 0.83; aortic annular area, R = 0.91), with low inter- and intraobserver variability (intraclass correlation coefficient ≥ 0.93 and r ≥ 0.90 for all locations). Comparison based on conventional prosthesis sizing charts yielded excellent agreement in prosthesis size choice (κ = 0.90).

Conclusions:

New automated 3D transesophageal echocardiographic software allows accurate modeling and reproducible quantification of aortic annular and root dimensions with high feasibility. An excellent correlation between measurements with AVN and MDCT and agreement in prosthesis sizing suggests the use of AVN in clinical practice as potential alternative to MDCT before TAVR.

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