Determination of Sulfur Balance Between the Atmosphere and a Norway Spruce Forest Ecosystem: Comparison of Gradient Dry + Wet and Throughfall Deposition Measurements

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Abstract

Total sulfur deposition was determined above a Norway spruce forest, in Hungary. Two methods were applied, on one hand dry + wet deposition measurements and on the other, throughfall and stemflow deposition estimations have been carried out. Results show: total depositions are 3.3 and 3.2 g S m−2 yr−1 determined by dry + wet and throughfall deposition methods, respectively. The share of the dry deposition in the total S-load is 73%. The agreement between the results of the two different methods is good and suggests the needlessness of complicated dry + wet flux measurements, i.e. the total and dry deposition of sulfur compounds to forests can be determined by simple throughfall and wet deposition measurements.

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