New perspectives on photosynthetic phosphorylation in the light of a torsional mechanism of energy transduction and ATP synthesis

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New perspectives on photophosphorylation have been offered from the standpoint of the torsional mechanism of energy transduction and ATP synthesis. New experimental data on the involvement of malate anions in ATP synthesis in an acid-base malate bath procedure has been reported on spinach chloroplast thylakoids as the model system. The data cannot be reconciled with the chemiosmotic theory but has been shown to be naturally explained by the torsional mechanism. The path of malic acid in the acid and base stages of the experiment has been traced, offering further strong support to the new paradigm. Classical observations in the field have been re-interpreted in the light of these findings. A new concept of ion translocation, energy transduction and coupling at the overall physiological level in photophosphorylation has been presented and a large number of novel experimentally testable predictions have been made and shown to arise as logical consequences of the new perspectives.

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