Multiple-Drug Resistance in Burn Patients: A Retrospective Study on the Impact of Antibiotic Resistance on Survival and Length of Stay

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Abstract

Despite improvements in early treatment, survival following burn injury remains challenged by sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Additionally, susceptibility to infections and growing antibiotic resistance places burn patients at increased risk for infections with multiple-drug resistant organisms (MDROs). We therefore aimed to evaluate the impact of MDRO infections on survival and hospital length of stay, as well as examine the role of these organisms in the development of complications, such as acute kidney injury, sepsis, and MODS. To study this, we included all burn patients with infections, admitted between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2013. Patients were divided into two groups: patients with infections caused by MDROs and patients with infections caused by susceptible organisms. Data were collected on all available cultures, as well as demographic, injury, and treatment-related variables from the medical record. The number of operative procedures (median: 2 vs 1, P < .0001), ventilator days (21 vs 0 days, P < .0001), total antibiotic days (21 vs 7days, P < .0001), and length of hospitalization (39 vs 14 days, P < .0001) were significantly different in the MDRO group vs the nonresistant group. While MDRO infection was not associated with patient mortality, univariable logistic regression analyses demonstrated >20% TBSA (odds ratio [OR] = 4.30, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14–16.29, P = .03), acute kidney injury (OR = 10.93, 95% CI: 2.74–43.57, P = .001), sepsis (OR = 19.20, 95% CI: 3.79–97.27, P < .001), and MODS (OR = 85.49, 95% CI: 12.97–563.28, P < .0001) significantly increased the odds of patient mortality. These findings suggest that infections with MDROs are associated with a greater number of surgical procedures, longer duration of mechanical ventilation, more antibiotic days, and longer hospitalization.

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