The effect of mutation of F87 on the properties of CYP102A1-CYP4C7 chimeras: altered regiospecificity and substrate selectivity

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CYP102A1 is a highly active water-soluble bacterial monooxygenase that contains both substrate-binding heme and diflavin reductase subunits, all in a single polypeptide that has been called a “self-sufficient enzyme.” Several years ago we developed a procedure called “scanning chimeragenesis,” where we focused on residues 73-82 of CYP102A1, which contact approximately 40% of the substrates palmitoleic acid and N-palmitoylglycine [Murataliev et al. (2004) Biochemistry 43:1771-1780]. These residues were replaced with the homologous residues of CYP4C7. In the current work, that study has been expanded to include residue 87. Phenylalanine 87 of wild-type CYP102A1 was replaced with the homologous residue of CYP4C7, leucine, as well as with alanine. The full-sized chimeric proteins C(73-78, F87L), C(73-78, F87A), C(75-80, F87L), C(75-80, F87A), C(78-82, F87L) and C(78-82, F87A) have been purified and characterized. Wild-type CYP102A1 is most active toward fatty acids (both lauric and palmitic acids produce ω-1, ω-2, and ω-3 hydroxylated fatty acids), but it also catalyzes the oxidation of farnesol to three products (2, 3- and 10,11-epoxyfarnesols and 9-hydroxyfarnesol). All of the F87-mutant chimeric proteins show dramatic decreases in activities with the natural CYP102A1 substrates. In contrast, C(78-82, F87A) and C(78-82, F87L) have markedly increased activities with farnesol, with the latter showing a 5.7-fold increase in catalytic activity as compared to wild-type CYP102A1. C(78-82, F87L) produces 10,11-epoxyfarnesol as the single primary metabolite. The results show that chimeragenesis involving only the second half of SRS-1 plus F87 is sufficient to change the substrate selectivity of CYP102A1 from fatty acids to farnesol and to produce a single primary product.

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