Organelle autoregulation—stress responses in the ER, Golgi, mitochondria and lysosome

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Organelle autoregulation is a homeostatic mechanism to regulate the capacity of each organelle according to cellular demands. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response increases the expression of ER chaperones and ER-associated degradation factors when the capacity of the ER becomes insufficient, e.g. during cellular differentiation or viral propagation, and which can be restored through increased synthesis of secretory or membrane proteins. In the Golgi stress response, insufficient organelle capacity is responded to by augmentation of glycosylation enzyme expression and vesicular transport components. The mitochondrial stress response upregulates mitochondrial chaperone and protease expression in the mitochondrial matrix and intermembrane space when unfolded proteins accumulate in the mitochondria. The lysosome stress response is activated during autophagy to enhance the function of the lysosome by transcriptional induction of lysosome genes including cathepsins. However, many of the molecular mechanisms of organelle autoregulation remain unclear. Here, we review recent discoveries in organelle autoregulation and their molecular mechanisms.

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