Characterization of the nucleotide binding properties of the 90 kDa heat shock protein (Hsp90)

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Abstract

The recent crystallization and structural analysis of the ATP(ADP)-complex of the N-terminal domain of the 90 kDa heat shock protein (Hsp90) confirmed our earlier findings on the ATP-binding properties of Hsp90. Here we further characterize the nucleotide binding of Hsp90 by demonstrating that surface plasmon resonance measurements also indicate a low-affinity binding of ATP to Hsp90 and that [α-32P]ATP seems to have an equal preference for monomers, dimers and oligomers of Hsp90 on native polyacrylamide gels. Finally we discuss some of our results which raise the possibility that Hsp90 has two nucleotide binding sites (one in its N-terminal and another in the C-terminal domain) and that the nucleotide binding to Hsp90 dimers may display a positive cooperativity under some special conditions. The submillimolar binding affinity of ATP to Hsp90 allows the regulation of some Hsp90-related functions just in the range of ATP-level fluctuations during stress or during the cell cycle.

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