Plant growth and productivity are greatly affected by various stress factors. The molecular mechanisms of stress tolerance in plant species have been well established. Metabolic pathways involving the synthesis of metabolites such as polyamines, carbohydrates, proline and glycine betaine have been shown to be associated with stress tolerance. Introduction of the stress-induced genes involved in these pathways from tolerant species to sensitive plants seems to be a promising approach to confer stress tolerance in plants. In cases where single gene is not enough to confer tolerance, metabolic engineering necessitates the introduction of multiple transgenes in plants.