Lower Extremity-Specific Measures of Disability and Outcomes in Orthopaedic Surgery

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Outcome measures may be simple questions or complex measures that assess multiple interrelated domains affecting treatment outcomes.

Outcome measures should be relevant to patients, easy to use, reliable, valid, and responsive to clinical changes.

Joint and disease-specific outcome measures have been developed for the hip, knee, and foot and ankle. Many of these measures would benefit from further research into their validity, reliability, and optimal applicability.

General health measures and activity level scores should be included in outcome assessments after treatment for orthopaedic conditions.

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