The aim of this study was to determine the optimal formulation of antibiotic-loaded bone cement for knee periprosthetic joint infection. We used both in vitro and in vivo models incorporating various broad-spectrum antibiotics and tested their efficacy against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.Methods:
Bone cement specimens loaded with 4 g of either vancomycin or teicoplanin and 4 g of ceftazidime, imipenem, or aztreonam were studied to measure their in vitro antibiotic release characteristics and antibacterial capacities against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli. Bone cement spacers loaded with the antibiotics with the superior in vitro antibacterial capacity were then implanted into 8 patients (4 women and 4 men between 51 and 79 years of age) diagnosed with chronic knee periprosthetic joint infection. The antibiotic concentrations and antibacterial activities in the joint fluid at the site of the infection were measured following spacer implantation.Results:
Cement samples loaded with vancomycin and ceftazidime exhibited in vitro antibacterial activity against the test microorganisms that lasted for as long as or longer than that of cement loaded with the other antibiotic combinations. Joint fluid samples exhibited activity against bacteria including American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) strains and clinically isolated strains.Conclusions:
Bone cement loaded with vancomycin and ceftazidime provided broad-spectrum antibacterial capacity both in vitro and in vivo and was shown to be a potentially effective therapeutic measure in the treatment of knee periprosthetic joint infections.Clinical Relevance:
This study confirmed the potential effectiveness of drug delivery from bone cement spacers impregnated with vancomycin and ceftazidime.