Morphological Analysis of True Acetabulum in Hip Dysplasia (Crowe Classes I-IV) Via 3-D Implantation Simulation

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Background:The purpose of this study was to investigate the 3-dimensional (3D) morphological features of the true acetabulum in patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH).Methods:Seventy-nine hips—53 in patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) and 36 normal hips—were included in the present study. According to the Crowe classification, 26 hips were graded as Class I, 31 were Class II or III, and 22 were Class IV. The anterior pelvic plane was defined to standardize the measurements in the study. A selected virtual cup component was implanted into the true acetabulum of a 3D pelvic model of each hip. The acetabular anteversion angle, effective center-edge (CE) angle, effective Sharp angle, and thickness of the medial wall were measured to provide morphological indices of the true acetabulum. Acetabular sector angles and the component coverage ratio were measured to provide coverage indices.Results:The acetabular anteversion angle increased with the severity of the DDH. Crowe-II/III hips had the smallest effective CE angle and the largest effective Sharp angle. The mean medial wall thickness was greatest in the Crowe-II/III hips (8.72 mm; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.52 to 9.92 mm), intermediate in the Crowe-I hips (7.17 mm; 95% CI = 6.24 to 8.11 mm), and smallest in the Crowe-IV hips (6.05 mm; 95% CI = 4.78 to 7.32 mm). The integrated coverage ratio of the Crowe-II/III hips was significantly less than that of the Crowe-I and IV hips.Conclusions:The morphological features of the true acetabulum in patients with DDH can be evaluated comprehensively by using 3D implantation simulation. Segmental bone deficiency was prevalent in the dysplastic hips, especially those in the Crowe-II/III group. Both the severity and the individual morphology of the acetabular dysplasia should be carefully considered in preoperative planning.

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