Risk Factors for Failure of Arthroscopic Revision Anterior Shoulder Stabilization

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Abstract

Background:

Recurrent anterior instability following a failed Bankart repair in the shoulder represents a challenging clinical scenario. Few studies have examined the role of arthroscopic revision anterior stabilization as a treatment option in these cases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of arthroscopic revision anterior stabilization for patients with recurrent instability after a failed index procedure.

Methods:

Ninety-two patients underwent arthroscopic revision anterior stabilization after a failed index (open or arthroscopic) stabilization procedure. Sixty-five patients with a minimum of 2 years of follow-up were included in this study. The mean age at the time of revision surgery was 26 years (range, 15 to 57 years). The rate of recurrent instability and risk factors for failure were evaluated; the mean duration of follow-up was 4.7 years (range, 2 to 10.8 years). Glenoid and humeral bone loss were quantitatively assessed using preoperative T1-weighted magnetic resonance arthrograms to determine if the lesions were on-track or off-track.

Results:

Twenty-seven (42%) of the patients experienced recurrent instability at a mean of 2.3 years after arthroscopic revision anterior stabilization. On multivariate analysis, the presence of an off-track lesion, an age of <22 years, and ligamentous laxity were independent predictors of recurrence (p = 0.022, 0.028, and 0.031, respectively). Among a cohort with these risk factors excluded, the failure rate was 19%.

Conclusions:

Arthroscopic revision anterior stabilization is associated with a high rate of recurrent instability, and patient selection is of critical importance in order to minimize recurrence.

Level of Evidence:

Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

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