Radiographic and Clinical Outcomes of Porous Titanium-Coated and Plasma-Sprayed Acetabular Shells: A Five-Year Prospective Multicenter Study

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Abstract

Background:

New materials in cementless total hip arthroplasty are continuously introduced into clinical practice. The objective of this study was to compare the radiographic and clinical performances of acetabular shells made with porous titanium coating (PTC) and plasma-sprayed titanium (PS).

Methods:

Data from a prospective multicenter study monitoring PTC and PS shells were analyzed. Three hundred and eighty patients (191 with PTC and 189 with PS) with postoperative (within 10 months after the operation) and 5-year radiographs were available for assessment of radiographic outcomes and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). A radiolucent distance between the cup and acetabulum of ≥0.5 mm was defined as a gap if it was found on a postoperative radiograph and as a radiolucency if it was found on a later follow-up radiograph for the first time.

Results:

Postoperative gaps were more common with the PS shell (40% versus 24%, p < 0.001). However, a higher percentage of the gaps in the PTC group persisted at 5 years (56% versus 4%, p < 0.001). At 5 years, 23% of the PTC shells had a radiolucency versus 5% of the PS shells (p < 0.001). Logistic regression revealed a 5.2-fold increase in the odds for radiolucency with the PTC shell (p < 0.001). No patient underwent revision surgery due to acetabular component loosening within the study period. A PTC shell was the only factor associated with the risk of pain in a logistic regression model (odds ratio = 2.0, p = 0.035).

Conclusions:

PTC shells were associated with more patient-reported pain and a higher risk of radiolucency and a persistent gap at 5 years compared with the PS shells, although these outcomes were not related to each other. The clinical relevance of the radiographic findings is unclear as no prostheses were revised because of loosening, but the findings warrant additional follow-up studies.

Level of Evidence:

Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

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