Psychometric Properties of Patient-Reported Outcome Measures for Use in Patients with Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries: A Systematic Review

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Abstract

Background:

Despite the high costs of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries to patients and society, we are not aware of any systematic reviews that have been performed on patient-reported outcome instruments designed for this patient population. The purpose of the present review is to identify currently available patient-reported outcome questionnaires for patients with ACL injuries, to appraise and assess the methodological quality and psychometric evidence of the evaluations of identified instruments, and to summarize the overall evidence for each included questionnaire.

Methods:

A computerized literature search was performed to identify articles appropriate for inclusion in this systematic review. Search terms were related to outcome instruments, ACL injuries, and psychometric properties. Two independent reviewers assessed the suitability of articles for inclusion. The methodological quality of instrument evaluation was assessed with use of the Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Status Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) checklist. Psychometric properties were assessed with use of the quality criteria established by Terwee et al. The 2 assessments were synthesized to obtain an overall rating of the psychometric evidence for each questionnaire.

Results:

Forty-one studies investigating 24 instruments were included. The International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Form and the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) were the most frequently assessed instruments. The ACL-Return to Sport after Injury (ACL-RSI) scale had 6 properties with positive evidence and was the highest-quality instrument overall.

Conclusions:

Many of the included studies had low COSMIN ratings. The ACL-RSI is a reliable and valid scale to measure outcomes for patients with ACL injuries. Further assessments with improved methodological quality are needed to determine the psychometric properties of other instruments.

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