Co-occurrence of diabetes and hopelessness predicts adverse prognosis following percutaneous coronary intervention

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We examined the impact of co-occurring diabetes and hopelessness on 3-year prognosis in percutaneous coronary intervention patients. Consecutive patients (n = 534) treated with the paclitaxel-eluting stent completed a set of questionnaires at baseline and were followed up for 3-year adverse clinical events. The incidence of 3-year death/non-fatal myocardial infarction was 3.5% in patients with no risk factors (neither hopelessness nor diabetes), 8.2% in patients with diabetes, 11.2% in patients with high hopelessness, and 15.9% in patients with both factors (p = 0.001). Patients with hopelessness (HR: 3.28; 95% CI: 1.49–7.23) and co-occurring diabetes and hopelessness (HR: 4.89; 95% CI: 1.86–12.85) were at increased risk of 3-year adverse clinical events compared to patients with no risk factors, whereas patients with diabetes were at a clinically relevant but not statistically significant risk (HR: 2.40; 95% CI: 0.82–7.01). These results remained, adjusting for baseline characteristics and depressive symptoms. These findings testify to the importance of identifying patients with co-occurring risk factors, as they likely require special management in clinical practice in addition to standard medical treatment.

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