We investigated the enhancement of new bone |formation elicited ectopically by recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2), using parathyroid hormone (PTH) and a phosphodiesterase inhibitor (PDEi), pentoxifylline (PTX), in an animal model. Collagen sponge sheet discs containing rhBMP were implanted onto the back muscles of mice. PTX alone (200 mg/kg body weight [BW]), PTH(1-34) (10 μg/kg BW), PTX plus PTH (200 mg/kg BW and 10 μg/kg BW, respectively), or vehicle (control) were injected subcutaneously daily for 3 weeks after implantation. At the end of this period, rhBMP-2-induced ectopic ossicles were harvested from each group of animals. Ossicles from the PTX-treated group were significantly larger in size, with unchanged bone mineral density (BMD), as compared with the ossicles from the controls. In contrast, the ossicles from the PTH-treated group had significantly higher BMD, but showed no difference in size when compared with those from the control animals. The ossicles of the PTX + PTH treatment group were significantly larger than those of the control and PTH treatment groups. In addition, the BMD of the harvested tissues from the PTX + PTH treatment group was signifi-cantly higher than that of tissues from the control and PTX treatment groups. Although the calcium content of ossicles was significantly higher in the PTX-, PTH-, and PTX + PTH-treated groups than in the control group, the Ca content of ossicles from the PTH + PTX-treated group was highest (two times that of controls), followed by the PTH- and PTX-treated groups.