On using time-averaging restraints in molecular dynamics simulation

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Introducing experimental values as restraints into molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to bias the values of particular molecular properties, such as nuclear Overhauser effect intensities or distances, 3J coXDupling constants, chemical shifts or crystallographic structure factors, towards experimental values is a widely used structure refinement method. To account for the averaging of experimentally derived quantities inherent in the experimental techniques, time-averaging restraining methods may be used. In the case of structure refinement using 3J coupling constants from NMR experiments, time-averaging methods previously proposed can suffer from large artificially induced structural fluctuations. A modified time-averaged restraining potential energy function is proposed which overcomes this problem. The different possible approaches are compared using stochastic dynamics simulations of antamanide, a cyclic peptide of ten residues.

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