Initial Experience With Endobronchial Ultrasound-guided Transbronchial Needle Aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) From a Tuberculosis Endemic Population

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Background:Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is a widely accepted minimally invasive procedure for the evaluation of mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Most of the published literature on EBUS-TBNA is focused on the diagnostic and staging aspects of lung cancer. Literature on the utility of this modality from developing countries and settings with a high prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) is limited. We herein describe our preliminary experience over 1 year on the utility of EBUS-TBNA from a tertiary care teaching center in North India.Methods:The primary objective was to evaluate the utility of convex probe EBUS-TBNA as a modality for diagnosis in patients with mediastinal lymphadenopathy presenting to our center. EBUS-TBNA was performed under local anesthesia and conscious sedation in the bronchoscopy laboratory. Rapid on-site evaluation was available for most of the procedures. Patients were discharged the same day from the hospital.Results:A total of 102 patients with mean age of 42.1±14.2 years underwent EBUS-TBNA for a clinical indication of enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes, between September 2012 and September 2013.There were 63 males (61.8%) and 39 females (38.2%). EBUS-TBNA was performed for staging lung cancer in 5 patients.A total of 216 lymph node stations were sampled in 102 patients. Rapid on-site evaluation was performed in 95 patients (93.1%). Adequate/representative samples could be obtained in 98 of 102 patients (96.1%). Overall, EBUS-TBNA was diagnostic in 76 patients (74.5%). EBUS-TBNA was diagnostic in 80.9%, 84.8%, and 75% of patients with sarcoidosis, TB, and lung cancer, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of EBUS-TBNA were 81.7%, 100%, 100%, and 22.73%, respectively.Conclusions:EBUS-TBNA is a safe and efficacious procedure for obtaining tissue diagnosis in patients with mediastinal lymph node enlargement. The yield of EBUS-TBNA in diagnosis of mediastinal lymph node enlargement due to TB is especially high.

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