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Interventional rigid bronchoscopy for tracheobronchial stenosis can be performed under total intravenous anesthesia and spontaneous-assisted ventilation. Intraoperative hypoxemia can occur during this procedure, but the incidence and risk factors have not yet been determined.Medical records of patients who underwent rigid bronchoscopy for the treatment of tracheobronchial stenosis under total intravenous anesthesia and spontaneous-assisted ventilation during the study period from January 2011 to December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed.There were 126 patients who underwent 263 procedures. The 2 main causes of tracheobronchial stenosis were tuberculosis (41.3%) and malignancy (35.7%). The 2 main locations of stenotic area were the trachea (58.6%) and the left main bronchus (46.4%). Tracheobronchial dilatation and stent insertion were performed in 78.7% and 21.3% of patients, respectively. The incidence of intraoperative hypoxemia was 25.5%. Independent risk factors for intraoperative hypoxemia were a degree of tracheal stenosis ≥75% (odds ratio: 2.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-5.17) and tumor removal procedure (odds ratio: 2.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-7.41).Incidence of intraoperative hypoxemia during interventional rigid bronchoscopy for tracheobronchial stenosis under spontaneous-assisted ventilation was 25.5%. Risk factors for hypoxemia were a degree of tracheal stenosis ≥75% and tumor removal procedure.