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Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and mesenchymal stromal cell therapy are currently under investigation as novel therapies for inflammatory bowel diseases. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are thought to repopulate the immune system and reset the immunological response to luminal antigens. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are cells that have the capacity to differentiate into wide variety of distinct cell lineages and suppress immune responses in vitro and in vivo. Recent results from animal models and early human experience in graft-versus-host disease but also Crohn's Disease suggest that ex vivo expanded MSCs may have clinically useful immunomodulatory effects.