The Fate of Reconstructive Surgery Following Colectomy for Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Sweden: A Population-based Cohort Study

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Abstract

Background and Aims:

Previous studies describing the cumulative failure rate after reconstructive surgery in patients with inflammatory bowel disease have been restricted to specific hospitals, and the generalizability of these results in a population-based setting is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the cumulative failure rate and risk factors for failure after reconstructive surgery in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

Methods:

The study cohort includes all patients with inflammatory bowel disease in Sweden who underwent colectomy in 2000 through 2013 who were later treated with reconstructive surgery with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis or ileorectal anastomosis. Each patient was followed from admission for reconstructive surgery until admission for failure (a diverting stoma or permanent stoma), date of death, migration or December 31, 2013. Cumulative failure distributions were obtained with the Kaplan–Meier method, and multivariable Cox regression models were used to calculate the risk of failure.

Results:

Of the 1809 patients with inflammatory bowel disease treated with colectomy and reconstructive surgery, 83% had ulcerative colitis. During follow-up, 270 patients failed, and the cumulative failure rate was 4.1%, 13.2%, and 15.3% after 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively. The risk of failure was lower after treatment with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis than with ileorectal anastomosis [hazard ratio (95% confidence interval): 0.72 (0.56–0.93)]. Gender, hospital volume, and timing of reconstruction were not significantly associated with the risk of failure.

Conclusions:

The 5-year cumulative failure rate in a nationwide setting was 15.3%, and hospital volume was not associated with the risk of failure.

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