Background: Impairment of the quality of life in IBD is multifactorial, but primarily has been attributed to clinical variables. The study of the predictors of this impairment has become a priority for nurses. Currently a large variety of socio-demographic, clinical, psychological, social and functional predictors have been detected that could be used to improve the quality of life. It would be very useful to know which are the most influential to prioritize our performance.
Methods: A descriptive study to identify predictors of quality of life in a population of 181 patients diagnosed with IBD. IBDQ-36 was used to measure the quality of life and 8 questionnaires to measure socio-demographic variables, clinical activity, self-care, family support, social support and psychological variables (depression, coping, ... Simple linear regressions between 18 predictors significantly associated (p<0.05) were performed with quality of life. Finally, the coefficients of determination (R2), that indicate quantitatively the influence on the quality of life, were compared.
Results: The top 10 predictors, with a higher coefficients of determination (R2: 0.465–0.077, p<0.05), were: trouble performing daily activities, depression, pain, clinical activity, walking problems, ineffective emotional coping, problems for self-care, relapses, corticosteroids and low perception of self-control. Knowledge of self-care, family support and social support are next. The predictor with lower influence was the type of Inflammatory Disease (Crohn vs colitis), R2:0.019.TABLE01
Conclusions: Functional requeriments, related to the person's autonomy, and psychological disorders influence the impairment of quality of life more tan clinical variables such as pain or clinical activity. Nursing consultation should focus on the functional and psychological assessment of the patient, enhancing autonomy and emotional coping. That way we can improve the quality of life parallel to clinical treatment.