Questionnaires Designed to Assess Knowledge of Heart Failure Patients: A Systematic Review

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The objectives of this systematic review were (1) to describe the psychometric properties of questionnaires designed to assess knowledge of heart failure (HF) patients and (2) to identify the most applicable questionnaire to assess knowledge of HF patients.


A literature search of electronic databases was conducted from database inception to March 2014. Eligible articles included studies describing the development and psychometric testing of questionnaires designed to assess HF patients’ knowledge. Outcomes were based on the quality criteria for measurement properties of health status questionnaires. Articles were considered for inclusion by 2 authors independently.


Overall, 12 articles were included, of which 4 (33.33%) were considered “good” quality. Twelve original English-language instruments were identified. Content validity was described in 10 studies and presented positive ratings in all of them (83.33%); internal consistency in 10 studies and positive ratings in 5 (41.66%); construct validity in 5 and positive ratings in 4 (33.33%); responsiveness in 3 and positive ratings in 2 (16.66%); and reproducibility and floor effects in 1 with positive ratings. Based on our criteria, the Atlanta HF Knowledge Test was identified as the most applicable questionnaire to assess knowledge of HF patients.


Psychometric properties of questionnaires assessing HF patients’ knowledge are poorly described in the literature. Although we identified the Atlanta HF Knowledge Test as the most promising instrument, it has methodological limitations. We recommend the researchers to use the questionnaire that best serves their research question and context.

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