Guanosine-specific cyclic nucleotide signaling is suggested to serve protective actions in the vasculature; however, the influence of selective pharmacologic modulation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate–synthesizing soluble guanylate cyclase or cyclic guanosine monophosphate–degrading phosphodiesterase on vessel remodeling has not been thoroughly examined. In this study, rat carotid artery balloon injury was performed and the growth-modulating effects of the soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator YC-1 or the cyclic guanosine monophosphate–dependent phosphodiesterase-V inhibitor zaprinast were examined. YC-1 or zaprinast elevated vessel cyclic guanosine monophosphate content, reduced medial wall and neointimal cell proliferation, stimulated medial and neointimal cellular apoptosis, and markedly attenuated neointimal remodeling in comparable fashion. Interestingly, soluble guanylate cyclase inhibition by 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one failed to noticeably alter neointimal growth, and concomitant zaprinast with YC-1 did not modify any parameter compared to individual treatments. These results provide novel in vivo evidence that YC-1 and zaprinast inhibit injury-induced vascular remodeling through antimitogenic and proapoptotic actions and may offer promising therapeutic approaches against vasoproliferative disorders.