Fibroblast activity promotes adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling that underlies the development of ischemic cardiomyopathy. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) is a potent stimulus for fibrosis, and the extracellular signal-regulated kinases(ERK) 1/2 pathway also contributes to the fibrotic response. The thrombin receptor, protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1), has been shown to play an important role in the excessive fibrosis in different tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a PAR1 inhibitor, SCH79797, on cardiac fibrosis, tissue stiffness and postinfarction remodeling, and effects of PAR1 inhibition on thrombin-induced TGF-β and (ERK) 1/2 activities in cardiac fibroblasts.Methods:
We used a rat model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, isolated cardiac fibroblasts, and 3-dimensional (3D) cardiac tissue models fabricated to ascertain the contribution of PAR1 activation on cardiac fibrosis and LV remodeling.Results:
The PAR1 inhibitor attenuated LV dilation and improved LV systolic function of the reperfused myocardium at 28 days. This improvement was associated with a nonsignificant decrease in scar size (%LV) from 23 ± % in the control group (n = 10) to 16% ± 5.5% in the treated group (n = 9; P = .052). In the short term, the PAR1 inhibitor did not rescue infarct size or LV systolic function after 3 days. The PAR1 inhibition abolished thrombin-mediated ERK1/2 phosphorylation, TGF-β and type I procollagen production, matrix metalloproteinase-2/9 activation, myofibroblasts transformation in vitro, and abrogated the remodeling of 3D tissues induced by chronic thrombin treatment.Conclusion:
These studies suggest PAR1 inhibition initiated after ischemic injury attenuates adverse LV remodeling through late-stage antifibrotic events.