Atrial substrates with high-dominant frequency (DF) and complex fractionated atrial electrogram (CFAE) sites have sources maintaining atrial fibrillation (AF) and are potential AF ablation targets. This study aimed to evaluate an approach of circumferential pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) followed by a DF and CFAE site ablation.Methods and Results
Fifty consecutive AF patients (23 paroxysmal, 9 persistent, and 18 longstanding persistent) underwent ablation, using NavX. When AF continued after circumferential PVI, high-DF sites of ≥8 Hz and then continuous left atrial (LA) CFAE sites defined by fractionated intervals (FI) of ≤50 milliseconds including the coronary sinus and right atrium were targeted. A total of 45.1% of high-DF and 48.1% of continuous CFAE sites significantly decreased after PVI (P < 0.001). The mean LA DF and FI significantly decreased and prolonged, respectively, after PVI (P < 0.001). Only 14.1% of all high-DF sites after PVI overlapped with continuous CFAE sites. AF terminated at high-DF sites in 11 (22%) patients and continuous CFAE sites in 1 (2%). AF could be induced in only 8% of patients after the procedure. The mean LA DF value before ablation was significantly lower in those without recurrence (P = 0.003). AF freedom on antiarrhythmic drugs was 96% and 59%, respectively, in the paroxysmal and nonparoxysmal AF patients (89% persistent and 44% longstanding persistent) after 1 procedure over a 12-month follow-up.Conclusions
A combined high-DF and continuous CFAE site ablation in all chambers after circumferential PVI may be effective in the paroxysmal and persistent AF patients.