Left atrium (LA) low voltage area (LVA) on 3-D electroanatomic bipolar voltage mapping (EAVM), as a surrogate for scar, is associated with poor AF ablation outcome. We evaluated the long-term outcome of an LVA-guided atrial fibrillation (AF) substrate modification strategy as an adjunct to pulmonary vein isolation (PVI).Methods and Results
Two hundred and one consecutive patients with AF (82% persistent/Non-PAF, age 65 years), who underwent EAVM during AF prior to PVI, were divided into 2 groups according to the presence or absence of LVA outside the PV antra, defined as bipolar voltage of <0.5 mV. LVA-guided substrate modification was performed after PVI in patients with LVA. LVA was found in 159 patients (79%). Non-PAF (OR 3.851, P = 0.002) and CHA2DS2-VASc score (OR 1.815, P < 0.001) were independent predictors for the LVA. After the index procedure, 144 patients (72%) were free from AF at 12 months. With multiple procedures, 148 patients (74%) during a median follow-up of 3.1 years were free from the recurrence. There was no difference in the recurrence (log-rank P = 0.746), and complications (0% vs. 7%, P = 0.125) between the groups. Neither LVA nor Non-PAF was an independent predictor for the recurrence in a multivariate analysis.Conclusions
Patients with LVA had an equally favorable long-term ablation outcome compared to those without. As an adjunct to PVI, voltage-guided substrate modification may be an important ablation strategy in patients with LA structural remodeling.