Biventricular Paced QRS Area Predicts Acute Hemodynamic CRT Response Better Than QRS Duration or QRS Amplitudes

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Abstract

Introduction

Vectorcardiographic (VCG) QRS area of left bundle branch block (LBBB) predicts acute hemodynamic response in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) patients. We hypothesized that changes in QRS area occurring with biventricular pacing (BV) might predict acute hemodynamic CRT response (AHR).

Methods and Results

VCGs of 624 BV paced electrocardiograms (25 LBBB patients with 35 different pacing configurations) were calculated according to Frank's orthogonal lead system. Maximum QRS vector amplitudes (XAmpl, YAmpl, ZAmpl, and 3DAmp) and QRS areas (XArea, YArea, ZArea, and 3DArea) in the orthogonal leads (X, Y, and Z) and in 3-dimensional projection were measured. Volume of the 3D vector loop and global QRS duration (QRSD) on the surface electrocardiogram were assessed. Differences (Δ) in VCG parameters between BV paced and LBBB QRS complexes were calculated. An increase of 10% in dP/dt max was considered as AHR. LBBB conduction is characterized by a large ZArea (109 μVs, interquartile range [IQR]:75;135), significantly larger than XArea (22 μVs, IQR:10;57) and YArea (44 μVs, IQR:32;62, P < 0.001). Overall, QRS duration, amplitudes, and areas decrease significantly with BV pacing (P < 0.001). Of all VCG parameters, 3DAmpl, Δ3DAmpl, ZArea, ΔZArea, Δ3DArea, and ΔQRSD differentiate AHR response from nonresponse (P < 0.05). ΔZArea predicted best positive AHR (area under the curve = 0.813) and outperformed any other VCG parameter or QRSD measurement.

Conclusion

Of all VCG parameters, reduction in QRS area, calculated in Frank's Z lead, predicts acute hemodynamic response best. This method might be an easy, noninvasive tool to guide CRT implantation and optimization.

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