Electrocardiographic Predictors of Long-Term Cardiac Pacing Dependency Following Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation

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Abstract

Background

Conduction disorders requiring permanent pacemaker (PPM) implantation are a known complication of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Indications for permanent pacing in this setting are still controversial. The study aim was to characterize the natural history of conduction disorders related to TAVI, and to identify predictors for long-term pacing dependency.

Methods

Consecutive patients who underwent TAVI were included in this prospective observational study. The conduction system was investigated by reviewing 12-lead ECGs during hospitalization and up to 1-year follow-up and by analyzing pacemaker interrogation data. Multivariate analysis was performed in order to identify independent predictors for pacemaker dependency.

Results

Of 110 patients included in the analysis, 38 (34.5%) underwent PPM implantation. Of those, 26 (68.4%) had a long-term pacing dependency (required PPM), while 12 (31.6%) did not (not-required PPM). Logistic regression revealed that baseline RBBB (P = 0.01, OR = 18.0), baseline PR interval (P = 0.019, OR = 1.14), post-TAVI PR interval and the change in PR interval from baseline (P < 0.001 for both, OR = 1.17 for each 10 milliseconds increment) were independent predictors for long-term pacing dependency. A PR interval increment of greater than 28 milliseconds had the best accuracy in predicting pacemaker dependency.

Conclusions

Increased pre- and postprocedural PR intervals and pre-existing RBBB are reliable predictors for long-term PPM dependency, while left bundle branch block or QRS width are misleading factors. Our study suggests that the decision for implanting PPM after TAVI should be based mostly on the prolongation of the PR interval.

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