Impact of prehospital diagnosis in the management of ST elevation myocardial infarction in the era of primary percutaneous coronary intervention: reduction of treatment delay and mortality

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Abstract

Objectives

The aim of the study is to assess, as primary endpoints, in-hospital mortality and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) mortality and to compare the outcome in ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients with different pathways to a catheterization laboratory in the context of an area with 24 h availability of catheter facilities.

Methods

Three hundred and ninety-nine STEMI patients, referred to an interventional centre for primary PCI, were divided into two groups according to the different pathways to the catheterization laboratory. Group A had 263 patients diagnosed following admission to First Aid. Group B had 136 patients diagnosed in a prehospital setting with telemedicine equipment and transferred directly to the interventional centre by advanced life support (ALS) ambulance.

Results

Significantly shorter treatment delay was observed in group B patients than in group A (262 ± 112 vs. 148 ± 81 min in group A vs. B, P < 0.001). A significant reduction in total mortality was observed in group B compared with group A (8.7 vs. 3% in group A vs. B, P < 0.05). After multivariate analysis, predictors of in-hospital mortality are age and Killip class (P < 0.01), different pathways to catheterization laboratory, pre-PCI TIMI flow and onset-to-balloon time (P < 0.05).

Conclusion

The present study shows a reduction in treatment delay and in-hospital mortality by prehospital ECG and direct referral to catheterization laboratory.

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