Pheochromocytoma presenting as inverted Takotsubo cardiomyopathy: a case report and review of the literature

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Abstract

The classical entity of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is well established in the literature, but mechanisms explaining it remain unelucidated. Recently, the uncommon inverted Takotsubo type (sparing apical ballooning) has been more frequently described. We report the case of a 26-year-old man admitted with gastrointestinal symptoms, whose clinical presentation for a stress-related cardiomyopathy, which usually presents with cardiopulmonary symptoms, was rather atypical. The cardiac assessment including echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a dilated cardiomyopathy, whereas coronary angiography showed the absence of atherosclerotic disease. The abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a left adrenal mass, and elevated urinary catecholamine levels were highly suggestive of a pheochromocytoma. Prompt medical and surgical treatments were instituted. During the left adrenalectomy the patient suffered from brief electromechanical dissociation requiring aggressive resuscitation. Postoperative course was unremarkable. Reverse Takotsubo heart failure is a recently recognized syndrome and a systematic review of the literature of 10 cases of pheochromocytoma-induced inverted Takotsubo is presented in the present article.

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