The long-term impact of beta blockers on prognosis in patients treated with contemporary therapies for coronary artery disease remains to be defined.Methods and results
All observational studies evaluating the impact of beta blockers in patients treated with coronary revascularization and contemporary therapies and adjusted with multivariate analysis were included. All-cause death was the primary endpoint, while Major Adverse Cardiac Events (MACE) (composite endpoint of all-cause death or myocardial infarction, MI) and MI were secondary endpoints. A total of 26 studies were included, with 863 335 patients. After 3 (1–4.3) years, long-term risk of all-cause death was lower in patients on beta blockers [odds ratio, OR 0.69 (0.66–0.72)], both for Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) [OR 0.60 (0.56–0.65)], and stable angina patients [OR 0.84 (0.78–0.91)], independently from ejection fraction [OR 0.64 (0.42–0.98) for reduced ejection fraction and OR 0.79 (0.69–0.91) for preserved ejection fraction]. The risk of long-term MACE was lower but NS for ACS patients treated with beta blockers [OR 0.83 (0.69–1.00)], as in stable angina. Similarly, risk of MI did not differ between patients treated with beta blockers or without beta blockers [OR 0.99 (0.89–1.09), all 95% confidence intervals]. Using meta-regression analysis, the benefit of beta blockers was increased for those with longer follow-up. The number needed to treat was 52 to avoid one event of all-cause death for ACS patients and 111 for stable patients.Conclusion
Even in percutaneous coronary intervention era, beta blockers reduce mortality in patients with coronary artery disease, confirming their protective effect, which was consistent for both ACS and stable patients indifferently of preserved or reduced ejection fraction.