Takotsubo cardiomyopathy: queries of the current era

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Abstract

Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTS), also known as left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome, is an acute, usually reversible heart failure syndrome that most often affects postmenopausal women experiencing an emotionally stressful event. It is characterized by sudden left ventricular dysfunction and wall motion abnormalities involving the apical and mid segments. TTS has been increasingly recognized in recent years, and more and more information about the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of these patients has been reported. However, much is still unknown. TTS has a wide variety of clinical subtypes and has been described in several clinical contexts. Moreover, TTS simulates ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and acute myocarditis, and it can be difficult to obtain a certain diagnosis. As a result, clinical decisions are challenging, and many patients currently receive an inappropriate management strategy. The aim of this review is to critically analyze the evidence about this disease reported in the literature, with particular focus on the pathophysiological processes, the diagnostic elements that can help the clinician differentiate it from other diseases, and the best management of these patients.

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