The incidence of melanoma has risen dramatically over the past several decades. Oncologists rely on the ability of radiologists to identify subtle radiographic changes representing metastatic and recurrent melanoma in uncommon locations on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) as the front-line imaging surveillance tool. To accomplish this goal, MDCT acquisition and display must be optimized and radiologist interpretation and search patterns must be tailored to identify the unique and often subtle metastatic lesions of melanoma. This article describes MDCT acquisition and display techniques that optimize the visibility of melanoma lesions, such as high-contrast display windows and multiplanar reconstructions. In addition, innovative therapies for melanoma, such as immunotherapy and small-molecule therapy, have altered clinical management and outcomes and have also changed the spectrum of therapeutic complications that can be detected on MDCT. Recent advances in melanoma therapy and potential complications that the radiologist can identify on MDCT are reviewed.