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According to the new World Health Organization 2016 classification for tumors of the central nervous system, 1p/19q codeletion defines the genetic hallmark that differentiates oligodendrogliomas from diffuse astrocytomas. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis can stratify survival in adult patients with genetic defined diffuse glioma grades II and III.Sixty-seven patients with untreated diffuse gliomas World Health Organization grades II and III and known 1p/19q codeletion status were included retrospectively and analyzed using ADC and rCBV maps based on whole-tumor volume histograms. Overall survival and progression-free survival (PFS) were analyzed by using Kaplan-Meier and Cox survival analyses adjusted for known survival predictors.Significant longer PFS was associated with homogeneous rCBV distribution–higher rCBVpeak (median, 37 vs 26 months; hazard ratio [HR], 3.2; P = 0.02) in patients with astrocytomas, and heterogeneous rCBV distribution–lower rCBVpeak (median, 46 vs 37 months; HR, 5.3; P < 0.001) and higher rCBVmean (median, 44 vs 39 months; HR, 7.9; P = 0.003) in patients with oligodendrogliomas. Apparent diffusion coefficient parameters (ADCpeak, ADCmean) did not stratify PFS and overall survival.Tumors with heterogeneous perfusion signatures and high average values were associated with longer PFS in patients with oligodendrogliomas. On the contrary, heterogeneous perfusion distribution was associated with poor outcome in patients with diffuse astrocytomas.